This dictionary is meant both to provide some Danish translations of English concepts, and to provide some pointers to literature.

Danish order

(Da. )
acoustic model (Da. akustisk model)
affective (Da. emotionel)
"Affective computing" is a word coined by Rosalind Picard meaning about the same as emotional computing. Affective dialogue systems are system where the system can express or recognize emotions (joy, anger, satisfaction, sadness, ...), and where emotions are part of the system model, controlling its behaviour.
[André et al. 2004a] [Dybkjær and Dybkjær 2004a] [Paiva 2000] [Picard 1997] [The MIT Affective Computing group]
anaphora (Da. anaforer)
annotation (Da. annotering)
The process of inserting tags in a corpus.
annotation scheme (Da. kodningsskema)
An annotation scheme includes at least a set of concepts of phenomena to be found in corpora but preferably also various documentation (meta-data) which will help the coder use the annotation scheme and use it correctly. An annotation scheme is designed to enable corpus annotation of instances of a particular class of phenomena expressed in one or several modalities.
annotation tool (Da. kodningsværktøj)
attentional state (Da. opmærksomhedstilstand)
coded speech (Da. kodet tale)
Coded speech consists of pre-recorded words and phrases which are concatenated and replayed.
coding (Da. kodning)
See annotation.
coding scheme (Da. kodningskema)
See annotation scheme.
coding tool (Da. kodningsværktøj)
See annotation tool.
communication types (Da. kommunikationstyper)
In task-oriented systems one may distinguish between three types of communication:
  1. Basic, task-oriented interaction or domain communication, which is what the dialogue is all about.
  2. Meta-communication which has a crucial auxiliary role in spoken human-machine interaction. Meta-communication serves as a means of resolving misunderstandings and lacks in understanding between the participants during task-oriented dialogue. In current interactive speech systems, meta-communication for interaction repair is essential because of the sub-optimal quality of the systems’ recognition and linguistic processing of spontaneous spoken language. Similarly, meta-communication for interaction clarification is likely to be needed in all but the most simple advanced interactive speech systems.
  3. Other forms of communication which do not belong to either of these two categories. Examples include opening and closing of the dialogue and communication about the system.
context (Da. kontekst)
control (Da. styring)
corpus (Da. korpus)
dialogue (Da. dialog)
A dialogue is a conversation between two or more persons and computers.
dialogue acts (Da. dialoghandlinger)
discourse (Da. diskurs)
discourse segment (Da. diskurssegment)
discourse structure (Da. diskursstruktur)
domain (Da. domæne)
ellipses (Da. ellipser)
expectations (Da. forventninger)
Expectations are what the system expects the user will talk about next.
focus (Da. fokus)
grammar (Da. grammatik)
initiative (Da. initiativ)
intentional structure (Da. hensigtsstruktur)
interaction history (Da. interaktionshistorie)
interaction level (Da. interaktionsniveau)
Expresses the constraints on user communication that are in operation at a certain stage during interaction. At least the five levels listed in the table may be distinguished. The interaction level may require hard constraints to be imposed on the user’s vocabulary, grammar and style. In the extreme, the system may ask the user to spell the input (Level 1). At the other extreme, no constraints on user input exist beyond those of general user co-operativity (Level 5) [Bernsen et al. 1998b].
LevelExpected input
How do you spell the name?
The answer is spelled.
‘B’ ‘e’ ‘r’ ‘n’ ‘s’ ‘e’ ‘n’
Do you want a return ticket?
Yes or no.
3Multiple choice.
Do you want a one-way or return ticket?
List of acceptable values.
A return ticket, please.
4General but focused.
Which day does the journey start?
Any answer within current focus.
Monday next week.
5General and unfocused.
How may I help you?
Any answer.
Can I take a cat with me on the flight?
kappa (Da. kappa)
Measure of coder agreement. Kappa κ = (P(A) - P(E)) / (1 - P(E)) where P(A) is the proportion of times that the coders agree and P(E) is the proportion of times that they are expected to agree by chance. As a rule of thumb, kappa values between 0.67 and 0.8 tentatively show some agreement, and values above 0.8 show a certain agreement, although the values should be interpreted with care. It is an assumption that the cases tagged are independent - something usually not true when tagging speech acts in a dialogue.
[1998b. p186] [Jurafsky and Martin 2000, p186] [Möller 2004]
language (Da. sprog)
language model (Da. sprogmodel)
lexicon (Da. leksikon)
linguistic structure (Da. lingvistisk struktur)
markup (Da. opmarkering)
See annotation.
mixed-initiative (Da. blandet initiativ)
parametric speech (Da. parametrisk tale)
See synthetic speech.
performance (Da. performans)
predictions (Da. forudsigelser)
priming (Da. ???)
prosody (Da. prosodi)
qwerty (Da. qwerty)
A standard keyboard designed to make typing slower.
references (Da. referencer)
scenario (Da. scenarie)
semantics (Da. semantik)
speech (Da. tale)
speech acts (Da. talehandlinger)
style (Da. stil)
syntax (Da. syntaks)
synthetic speech (Da. syntetisk tale)
Speech produced by a synthesiser that generates an acoustic signal based on a model of human speech.
system (Da. system)
tag (Da. mærke)
tag set (Da. sæt af mærker)
tagging (Da. kodning)
See annotation.
task (Da. opgave)
task-oriented (Da. opgaveorienteret)
A system is task-oriented if the design focuses on solving specific tasks.
[1994a] [1995n]
topic (Da. emne)
transcription (Da. transskription)
The process of converting speech to written text usually extended with some markup. The transcription typically presents who said what, in which order, events that might have happened during the spoken dialogue etc., and does so in a way which carries as little theoretical baggage as possible. The transcription rules are based on, for instance, standard dictionary word forms (orthographic transcription) or a standard sound alphabet (phonetic transcription).
[1998b] [1998c]
user (Da. bruger)
user model (Da. brugermodel)

Dictionary in Danish order

(En. )
??? (En. priming)
akustisk model (En. acoustic model)
anaforer (En. anaphora)
annotering (En. annotation)
blandet initiativ (En. mixed-initiative)
bruger (En. user)
brugermodel (En. user model)
dialog (En. dialogue)
dialoghandlinger (En. dialogue acts)
diskurs (En. discourse)
diskurssegment (En. discourse segment)
diskursstruktur (En. discourse structure)
domæne (En. domain)
ellipser (En. ellipses)
emne (En. topic)
emotionel (En. affective)
fokus (En. focus)
forudsigelser (En. predictions)
forventninger (En. expectations)
grammatik (En. grammar)
hensigtsstruktur (En. intentional structure)
initiativ (En. initiative)
interaktionshistorie (En. interaction history)
interaktionsniveau (En. interaction level)
kappa (En. kappa)
kodet tale (En. coded speech)
kodning (En. coding)
kodning (En. tagging)
kodningskema (En. coding scheme)
kodningsskema (En. annotation scheme)
kodningsværktøj (En. annotation tool)
kodningsværktøj (En. coding tool)
kommunikationstyper (En. communication types)
kontekst (En. context)
korpus (En. corpus)
leksikon (En. lexicon)
lingvistisk struktur (En. linguistic structure)
mærke (En. tag)
opgave (En. task)
opgaveorienteret (En. task-oriented)
opmarkering (En. markup)
opmærksomhedstilstand (En. attentional state)
parametrisk tale (En. parametric speech)
performans (En. performance)
prosodi (En. prosody)
qwerty (En. qwerty)
referencer (En. references)
scenarie (En. scenario)
semantik (En. semantics)
sprog (En. language)
sprogmodel (En. language model)
stil (En. style)
styring (En. control)
syntaks (En. syntax)
syntetisk tale (En. synthetic speech)
system (En. system)
sæt af mærker (En. tag set)
tale (En. speech)
talehandlinger (En. speech acts)
transskription (En. transcription)